1 Shape and designs
2 Shape Modeling
3 Pattern engraving
4 Ball milling of fine porcelain clay
5 Iron Removal device
6 Filter press making clay
7 Cakes are pugged into clay rods
8 Slip casting in progress
9 Finishing the greenware
10 Greenware of casted teapots
11 Roller head jiggering
12 Oval platter plaster mold
13 Greenware drying
14 Glazing on spinning wheel
15 Mugs and cups production line
16 Foot wiping after glazing
17 Loading of greenware onto kiln
18 Products being fired
19 fired products
20 decaled mugs for 2nd onglaze firing
21 fired decal mug

1. Modeling:

Modeling is a process which transforms conceptual ideas into actual shapes. When an artist or designer submits a drawing, our modelers will create a plaster model according to the design specifications. A modeler needs a number of years of job training and must understand the methods of ceramics production to avoid production defects or problems due to design flaw. For example, the size of a plaster model must be approximately 14% larger than the final product's size in order to account for the shrinkage that occurs during firing.

 2. Making ceramics clay
Our ceramics clay consists of Kaolin, feldspar, ball clay and quartz. These raw materials are mixed with water and ball-milled for 17 hours to grind them into extremely fine particles. The mixture of clay and water is called the "slip", which is later transformed into clay rods for jiggering or slips for casting . The moisture content of the clay has to be controlled precisely to maintain a consistent firing shrinkage. A vacuum process removes any air bubbles inside the clay to eliminate surface bloating during firing. Different testing procedures such as chemical analysis, glaze and clay thermal expansion, water absorption and thermal stability are performed on both our clay and fired bodies to ensure production reaches our quality benchmarks.

 3. Forming

Common forming processes in ceramic production are jiggering, slip casting, pressure casting and ram press. Jiggering is the most efficient way to form plates, bowls and cups, . During jiggering, the roller head presses down against a chunk of sliced clay resting on the plaster mold. After sufficient drying, the semi-dry clay piece, or "greenware", is removed from the mold for finishing, polishing and glazing. Slip casting, pressure casting and ram press are techniques for items with irregular shapes where jiggering is impossible. Typical casted items include teapots, gravy boats, creamers, salt and pepper shakers, etc.

4. Firing

By firing glazed greenware in our roll kilns for about 6 hours at 1180C, the minimum point at which Ceramics sinters, the fragile and coarse greenware transforms into hard, shiny white porcelain. Sintering is the process in which the material changes into a glassy state, becoming dense and translucent with no open porosity. By utilizing reduction firing, our ceramic emerges from the kiln a beautiful  color.

5. Surface decoration

Besides selling blankware - plain white and embossed pattern porcelain pieces - we are capable of adding surface decorations on our bodies as a value added process to our customers. This is usually accomplished by applying water slide decals on top of our dinnerware or hand-painting a metallic trim to the rim of our dinnerware and firing the pieces a second time at 850C to ensure that the decal melts and fuses to the porcelain glaze. If you don't have your own art, we have a team of in-house designers who create new and unique patterns to meet the needs of various festive occasions in all seasons.